The coordinated differentiation of progenitor cells into specialized cell types and their spatial organization into distinct domains is central to embryogenesis. Here, we developed and applied an unbiased spatially resolved single-cell transcriptomics method to identify the genetic programs underlying the emergence of specialized cell types during mouse limb development and their spatial integration. We identify multiple transcription factors whose expression patterns are predominantly associated with cell type specification or spatial position, suggesting two parallel yet highly interconnected regulatory systems. We demonstrate that the embryonic limb undergoes a complex multiscale reorganization upon perturbation of one of its spatial organizing centers, including the loss of specific cell populations, alterations of preexisting cell states' molecular identities, and changes in their relative spatial distribution. Our study shows how multidimensional single-cell, spatially resolved molecular atlases can allow the deconvolution of spatial identity and cell fate and reveal the interconnected genetic networks that regulate organogenesis and its reorganization upon genetic alterations.