Multiplexed imaging and spatial transcriptomics enable highly resolved spatial characterization of cellular phenotypes, but still largely depend on laborious manual annotation to understand higher-order patterns of tissue organization. As a result, higher-order patterns of tissue organization are poorly understood and not systematically connected to disease pathology or clinical outcomes. To address this gap, we developed an approach called UTAG to identify and quantify microanatomical tissue structures in multiplexed images without human intervention. Our method combines information on cellular phenotypes with the physical proximity of cells to accurately identify organ-specific microanatomical domains in healthy and diseased tissue. We apply our method to various types of images across healthy and disease states to show that it can consistently detect higher-level architectures in human tissues, quantify structural differences between healthy and diseased tissue, and reveal tissue organization patterns at the organ scale.