Human physiological activities and pathological changes arise from the coordinated interactions of multiple molecules. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based multi-omics and MS imaging (MSI)-based spatial omics are powerful methods used to investigate molecular information related to the phenotype of interest from homogenated or sliced samples, including the qualitative, relative quantitative and spatial distributions. Molecular network strategy provides efficient methods to help us understand and mine the biological patterns behind the phenotypic data. It illustrates and combines various relationships between molecules, and further performs the molecule identification and biological interpretation. Here, we describe the recent advances of network-based analysis and its applications for different biological processes, such as, obesity, central nervous system diseases, and environmental toxicology.