Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), are widely involved in the physiological and pathological processes of human beings. While up to date, although considerable progress has been achieved in ncRNA-related pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the underlying mechanisms and biological significance of snoRNAs in NSCLC still need to be further clarified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or RNAscope was performed to verify the expression of Small Nucleolar RNA, H/ACA Box 38B (SNORA38B) in NSCLC cell lines or clinical samples. BALB/c nude mice xenograft model or C57BL/6J mice syngeneic tumor model were estimated to detect the effects of SNORA38B in tumor growth or tumor immune microenvironment in vivo. Cytometry by time of flight, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry assay were conducted to clarify the effects and mechanisms of SNORA38B-mediated tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. The binding activity between SNORA38B and E2F transcription factor 1(E2F1) was detected by RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays. Then, bioinformatics analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation were utilized to demonstrate the regulation of GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 (GAB2) by E2F1. Moreover, the combinatorial treatment of SNORA38B locked nucleic acid (LNA) and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) was used to treat murine Lewis lung carcinoma-derived tumor burden C57BL/6J mice to clarify the effectiveness of targeting SNORA38B in NSCLC immunotherapy. SNORA38B was found highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines, and associated with worse prognosis. Further results showed that SNORA38B functioned as an oncogene via facilitating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and inhibiting cell apoptosis in vitro and promoting tumorigenesis of NSCLC cells in vivo. SNORA38B could also recruit the CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells by triggering tumor cells to secrete interleukin 10, which in turn reduced the infiltration of CD3+CD8+ T cells in NSCLC tumor microenvironment (TME), favoring tumor progression and poorer immune efficacy. Mechanistically, SNORA38B mainly distributed in the nucleus, and promoted NSCLC progression by regulating GAB2 transcription to activate protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway through directly binding with E2F1. Moreover, we found that SNORA38B LNAs were able to ameliorate CD3+CD8+ T cell infiltration in TME, which sensitized NSCLC to the treatment of ICB. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that SNORA38B functioned as an oncogene in NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo at least in part by regulating the GAB2/AKT/mTOR pathway via directly binding to E2F1. SNORA38B could also sensitize NSCLC to immunotherapy, which may be a critical therapeutic target for NSCLC.