PRDM16 Is a Compact Myocardium-Enriched Transcription Factor Required to Maintain Compact Myocardial Cardiomyocyte Identity in Left Ventricle.
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Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) was discovered half a century ago as a cardiomyopathy with excessive trabeculation and a thin ventricular wall. In the decades since, numerous studies have demonstrated that LVNC primarily has an effect on left ventricles (LVs) and is often associated with LV dilation and dysfunction. However, in part because of the lack of suitable mouse models that faithfully mirror the selective LV vulnerability in patients, mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of LVs to dilation and dysfunction in LVNC remain unknown. Genetic studies have revealed that deletions and mutations in PRDM16 (PR domain-containing 16) cause LVNC, but previous conditional Prdm16 knockout mouse models do not mirror the LVNC phenotype in patients, and the underlying molecular mechanisms by which PRDM16 deficiency causes LVNC are still unclear. Prdm16 cardiomyocyte-specific knockout (Prdm16cKO) mice were generated and analyzed for cardiac phenotypes. RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation deep sequencing were performed to identify direct transcriptional targets of PRDM16 in cardiomyocytes. Single-cell RNA sequencing in combination with spatial transcriptomics was used to determine cardiomyocyte identity at the single-cell level. Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of Prdm16 in mice caused LV-specific dilation and dysfunction, as well as biventricular noncompaction, which fully recapitulated LVNC in patients. PRDM16 functioned mechanistically as a compact myocardium-enriched transcription factor that activated compact myocardial genes while repressing trabecular myocardial genes in LV compact myocardium. Consequently, Prdm16cKO LV compact myocardial cardiomyocytes shifted from their normal transcriptomic identity to a transcriptional signature resembling trabecular myocardial cardiomyocytes or neurons. Chamber-specific transcriptional regulation by PRDM16 was attributable in part to its cooperation with LV-enriched transcription factors Tbx5 and Hand1. These results demonstrate that disruption of proper specification of compact cardiomyocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of LVNC. They also shed light on underlying mechanisms of the LV-restricted transcriptional program governing LV chamber growth and maturation, providing a tangible explanation for the susceptibility of LV in a subset of LVNC cardiomyopathies.


Spatial Transcriptomics
chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing
gene expression regulation

MeSH terms

DNA-Binding Proteins
Heart Ventricles
Mice, Knockout
Myocytes, Cardiac
Transcription Factors


Wu, Tongbin
Liang, Zhengyu
Zhang, Zengming
Liu, Canzhao
Zhang, Lunfeng
Gu, Yusu
Peterson, Kirk L
Evans, Sylvia M
Fu, Xiang-Dong
Chen, Ju

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