Prognosis and Immunotherapy Significances of a Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts-Related Gene Signature in Gliomas.
IF: 6.081


As a cold tumor, malignant glioma has strong immunosuppression and immune escape characteristics. The tumor microenvironment (TME) provides the "soil" for the survival of malignant tumors, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the architects of matrix remodeling in TME. Therefore, CAFs have potent regulatory effects on the recruitment and functional differentiation of immune cells, whereby they synthesize and secrete numerous collagens, cytokines, chemokines, and other soluble factors whose interaction with tumor cells creates an immunosuppressive TME. This consequently facilitates the immune escape of tumor cells. Targeting CAFs would improve the TME and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy. Thus, regulation of CAFs and CAFs-related genes holds promise as effective immunotherapies for gliomas. Here, by analyzing the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas and the Cancer Genome Atlas database, the proportion of CAFs in the tumor was revealed to be associated with clinical and immune characteristics of gliomas. Moreover, a risk model based on the expression of CAFs-related six-gene for the assessment of glioma patients was constructed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and the results showed that a high-risk group had a higher expression of the CAFs-related six-genes and lower overall survival rates compared with those in the low-risk group. Additionally, patients in the high-risk group exhibited older age, high tumor grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase wildtype, 1p/19q non-codeletion, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter unmethylation and poor prognosis. The high-risk subtype had a high proportion CAFs in the TME of glioma, and a high expression of immune checkpoint genes. Analysis of the Submap algorithm indicated that the high-risk patients could show potent response to anti-PD-1 therapy. The established risk prediction model based on the expression of six CAFs-related genes has application prospects as an independent prognostic indicator and a predictor of the response of patients to immunotherapy.


Spatial Transcriptomics
cancer-associated fibroblasts
risk score
tumor microenvironment


Chen, Zhimin
Zhuo, Shenghua
He, Guiying
Tang, Jingzhi
Hao, Weijie
Gao, Wei-Qiang
Yang, Kun
Xu, Huiming

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