Tumor heterogeneity, a hallmark of cancer, impairs the efficacy of cancer therapy and drives tumor progression. Exploring inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity not only provides insights into tumor development and progression, but also guides the design of personalized therapies. Previously, high-throughput sequencing techniques have been used to investigate the heterogeneity of tumor ecosystems. However, they could not provide a high-resolution landscape of cellular components in tumor ecosystem. Recently, advance in single-cell technologies has provided an unprecedented resolution to uncover the intra-tumoral heterogeneity by profiling the transcriptomes, genomes, proteomes and epigenomes of the cellular components and also their spatial distribution, which greatly accelerated the process of basic and translational cancer research. Importantly, it has been demonstrated that some cancer cells are able to transit between different states in order to adapt to the changing tumor microenvironment, which led to increased cellular plasticity and tumor heterogeneity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving cancer cell plasticity is critical for developing precision therapies. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in dissecting the cancer cell plasticity and tumor heterogeneity by use of single-cell multi-omics techniques.