Receptor Tyrosine Kinases ror1/2 and ryk Are Co-expressed with Multiple Wnt Signaling Components During Early Development of Sea Urchin Embryos.
IF: 1.932


AbstractA combination of receptors, co-receptors, and secreted Wnt modulators form protein complexes at the cell surface that activate one or more of the three different Wnt signaling pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/Ca2+). Two or more of these pathways are often active in the same cellular territories, forming Wnt signaling networks; however, the molecular mechanisms necessary to integrate information from these pathways in these situations are unclear in any in vivo model system. Recent studies have implicated two Wnt binding receptor tyrosine kinases, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) and related-to-receptor tyrosine kinase (Ryk), in the regulation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways, depending on the context; however, the spatiotemporal expression of these genes in relation to Wnt signaling components has not been well characterized in most deuterostome model systems. Here we use a combination of phylogenetic and spatiotemporal gene expression analyses to characterize Ror and Ryk orthologs in sea urchin embryos. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that both ror1/2 and ryk originated as single genes from the metazoan ancestor. Expression analyses indicate that ror1/2 and ryk are expressed in the same domains of many Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors essential for the specification and patterning of germ layers along the early anterior-posterior axis. In addition, both genes are co-expressed with Wnt signaling components in the gut, ventral ectoderm, and anterior neuroectoderm territories later in development. Together, our results indicate that Ror and Ryk have a complex evolutionary history and that their spatiotemporal expression suggests that they could contribute to the complexity of Wnt signaling in early sea urchin embryogenesis.


In situ HCR

MeSH terms

Neural Plate
Sea Urchins
Wnt Signaling Pathway


Ka, C
Gautam, S
Marshall, S R
Tice, L P
Martinez-Bartolome, M
Fenner, J L
Range, R C

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