Highly multiplexed immunofluorescence of the human kidney using co-detection by indexing.
IF: 18.998
Cited by: 15


The human kidney is composed of many cell types that vary in their abundance and distribution from normal to diseased organ. As these cell types perform unique and essential functions, it is important to confidently label each within a single tissue to accurately assess tissue architecture and microenvironments. Towards this goal, we demonstrate the use of co-detection by indexing (CODEX) multiplexed immunofluorescence for visualizing 23 antigens within the human kidney. Using CODEX, many of the major cell types and substructures, such as collecting ducts, glomeruli, and thick ascending limb, were visualized within a single tissue section. Of these antibodies, 19 were conjugated in-house, demonstrating the flexibility and utility of this approach for studying the human kidney using custom and commercially available antibodies. We performed a pilot study that compared both fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded healthy non-neoplastic and diabetic nephropathy kidney tissues. The largest cellular differences between the two groups was observed in cells labeled with aquaporin 1, cytokeratin 7, and α-smooth muscle actin. Thus, our data show the power of CODEX multiplexed immunofluorescence for surveying the cellular diversity of the human kidney and the potential for applications within pathology, histology, and building anatomical atlases.


cell neighborhoods
cell type
multiplexed imaging

MeSH terms

Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Pilot Projects
Staining and Labeling


Neumann, Elizabeth K
Patterson, Nathan Heath
Rivera, Emilio S
Allen, Jamie L
Brewer, Maya
deCaestecker, Mark P
Caprioli, Richard M
Fogo, Agnes B
Spraggins, Jeffrey M

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