The control in optical uniformity of single nanoparticles and tuning their diversity in multiple dimensions, dot to dot, holds the key to unlocking nanoscale applications. Here we report that the entire lifetime profile of the single upconversion nanoparticle (τ2 profile) can be resolved by confocal, wide-field, and super-resolution microscopy techniques. The advances in both spatial and temporal resolutions push the limit of optical multiplexing from microscale to nanoscale. We further demonstrate that the time-domain optical fingerprints can be created by utilizing nanophotonic upconversion schemes, including interfacial energy migration, concentration dependency, energy transfer, and isolation of surface quenchers. We exemplify that three multiple dimensions, including the excitation wavelength, emission color, and τ2 profile, can be built into the nanoscale derivative τ2-dots. Creating a vast library of individually preselectable nanotags opens up a new horizon for diverse applications, spanning from sub-diffraction-limit data storage to high-throughput single-molecule digital assays and super-resolution imaging.