Cardiac fibrosis is the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), such as collagen. Myofibroblasts are major players in the production of collagen, and are differentiated primarily from resident fibroblasts. Collagen can compensate for the dead cells produced by injury. The appropriate production of collagen is beneficial for preserving the structural integrity of the heart, and protects the heart from cardiac rupture. However, excessive deposition of collagen causes cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies have demonstrated that myofibroblasts can change their phenotypes. In addition, myofibroblasts are found to have functions other than ECM production. Myofibroblasts have macrophage-like functions, in which they engulf dead cells and secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines. Research into fibroblasts has been delayed due to the lack of selective markers for the identification of fibroblasts. In recent years, it has become possible to genetically label fibroblasts and perform sequencing at single-cell levels. Based on new technologies, the origins of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, time-dependent changes in fibroblast states after injury, and fibroblast heterogeneity have been demonstrated. In this paper, recent advances in fibroblast and myofibroblast research are reviewed.