Microbes thrive in diverse habitats. They often form ecological niches with rich species diversity and complex spatial structure. These communities drive biogeochemical cycles in the environment and modulate host health in the human body. Much has been learned about the makeup of human and environmental microbiota via metagenomic DNA sequencing, but information on spatial interactions between microbes and between microbes and their environment remains scarce. Here, we review recent advances in tools to map the biogeography of microbiomes. We discuss methods to spatially map microbial genes, transcripts, and metabolites. We also examine future directions for microbiome mapping technologies that will allow improved understanding of both microbiome structure and function. Finally, we reflect on the impact of these methods in Biomedical Engineering.