Proteome-wide profiling of protein phosphorylation has been widely used to reveal the underlying mechanism of diverse cellular signaling events. Yet, characterizing subcellular phosphoproteome with high spatial-temporal resolution has remained challenging. Herein, we developed a subcellular-specific uncaging-assisted biotinylation and mapping of phosphoproteome (SubMAPP) strategy to monitor the phosphorylation dynamics of subcellular proteome in living cells and animals. Our method capitalizes on the genetically encoded bioorthogonal decaging strategy, which enables the rapid activation of subcellular localized proximity labeling biotin ligase through either light illumination or small-molecule triggers. By further adopting an integrated orthogonal pull-down strategy with quantitative mass spectrometry, SubMAPP allowed for the investigation of subcellular phosphoproteome dynamics, revealing the altered phosphorylation patterns of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal proteins under ER stress. Finally, we further expanded the scope of the SubMAPP strategy to primary neuron culture and living mice.