In eukaryotes, the genome is hierarchically packed inside the nucleus, which facilitates physical contact between cis-regulatory elements (CREs), such as enhancers and promoters. Accumulating evidence highlights the critical role of higherorder chromatin structure in precise regulation of spatiotemporal gene expression under diverse biological contexts including lineage commitment and cell activation by external stimulus. Genomics and imaging-based technologies, such as Hi-C and DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have revealed the key principles of genome folding, while newly developed tools focus on improvement in resolution, throughput and modality at single-cell and population levels, and challenge the knowledge obtained through conventional approaches. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of principles of higher-order chromosome conformation and technologies to investigate 4D chromatin interactions. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(5): 233-245].