Organ development in plants predominantly occurs postembryonically through combinatorial activity of meristems; therefore, meristem and organ fate are intimately connected. Inflorescence morphogenesis in grasses (Poaceae) is complex and relies on a specialized floral meristem, called spikelet meristem, that gives rise to all other floral organs and ultimately the grain. The fate of the spikelet determines reproductive success and contributes toward yield-related traits in cereal crops. Here, we examined the transcriptional landscapes of floral meristems in the temperate crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using RNA-seq of laser capture microdissected tissues from immature, developing floral structures. Our unbiased, high-resolution approach revealed fundamental regulatory networks, previously unknown pathways, and key regulators of barley floral fate and will equally be indispensable for comparative transcriptional studies of grass meristems.