Spatial transcriptional profiling provides gene expression information within the important anatomical context of tissue architecture. This approach is well suited to characterizing solid tumors, which develop within a complex landscape of malignant cells, immune cells, and stroma. In a single assay, spatial transcriptional profiling can interrogate the role of spatial relationships among these cell populations as well as reveal spatial patterns of relevant oncogenic genetic events. The broad utility of this approach is reflected in the array of strategies that have been developed for its implementation as well as in the recent commercial development of several profiling platforms. The flexibility to apply these technologies to both hypothesis-driven and discovery-driven studies allows widespread applicability in research settings. This review discusses available technologies for spatial transcriptional profiling and several applications for their use in cancer research.