Multiple myeloma is an incurable cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. For the proliferation and survival of myeloma cells, as well as the occurrence of the complications, numerous intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms are involved. The interaction of myeloma cells with the microenvironment is known to be one of the most critical mechanisms. A specific microenvironment could affect the progression and growth of tumor cells, as well as drug resistance. Among various microenvironment components, such as hematological and non-hematological cells, and soluble factors (cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins), in this review, we focus on the role of mesenchymal cells. We aimed to summarize the experimental strategies used for conducting studies and current understanding of the biological roles in the pathogenesis of myeloma. Furthermore, we discuss the possible clinical applications targeting mesenchymal cells.