As the most complex organ of the human body, the brain is composed of diverse regions, each consisting of distinct cell types and their respective cellular interactions. Human brain development involves a finely tuned cascade of interactive events. These include spatiotemporal gene expression changes and dynamic alterations in cell-type composition. However, our understanding of this process is still largely incomplete owing to the difficulty of brain spatiotemporal transcriptome collection. In this study, we developed a tensor-based approach to impute gene expression on a transcriptome-wide level. After rigorous computational benchmarking, we applied our approach to infer missing data points in the widely used BrainSpan resource and completed the entire grid of spatiotemporal transcriptomics. Next, we conducted deconvolutional analyses to comprehensively characterize major cell-type dynamics across the entire BrainSpan resource to estimate the cellular temporal changes and distinct neocortical areas across development. Moreover, integration of these results with GWAS summary statistics for 13 brain-associated traits revealed multiple novel trait-cell-type associations and trait-spatiotemporal relationships. In summary, our imputed BrainSpan transcriptomic data provide a valuable resource for the research community and our findings help further studies of the transcriptional and cellular dynamics of the human brain and related diseases.