Single cells are the building blocks of tissue systems that determine organ phenotypes, behaviors, and functions. Understanding the differences between cell types and their activities might provide us with insights into normal tissue physiology, development of disease, and new therapeutic strategies. Although -omic level single-cell technologies are a relatively recent development that have been used only in research settings, these approaches might eventually be used in the clinic. We review the prospects of applying single-cell genome, transcriptome, epigenome, proteome, and metabolome analyses to gastroenterology and hepatology research. Combining data from multi-omic platforms coupled to rapid technological development could lead to new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches.