In situ metabolite and lipid analysis of GluN2D-/- and wild-type mice after ischemic stroke using MALDI MSI.
IF: 4.478
Cited by: 5


The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a crucial mediator of pathological glutamate-driven excitotoxicity and subsequent neuronal death in acute ischemic stroke. Although the roles of the NMDAR's composite GluN2A-C subunits have been investigated in this phenomenon, the relative importance of the GluN2D subunit has yet to be evaluated. Herein, GluN2D-/- mice were studied in a model of ischemic stroke using MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry imaging to investigate the role of the GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor in brain ischemia. GluN2D-/- mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and brain tissue was subsequently harvested, frozen, and cryosectioned. Tissue sections were analyzed via MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry imaging. MALDI analyses revealed increases in several calcium-related species, namely vitamin D metabolites, LysoPC, and several PS species, in wild-type mouse brain tissue when compared to wild type. In addition, GluN2D-/- mice also displayed an increase in PC, as well as a decrease in DG, suggesting reduced free fatty acid release from brain ischemia. These trends indicate that GluN2D-/- mice show enhanced rates of neurorecovery and neuroprotection from ischemic strokes compared to wild-type mice. The cause of neuroprotection may be the result of an increase in PGP in knockout mice, contributing to greater cardiolipin synthesis and decreased sensitivity to apoptotic signals. Graphical abstract.


Bioanalytical methods
Mass spectrometry

MeSH terms

Gene Deletion
Ischemic Stroke
Lipid Metabolism
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Knockout
Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization


Andrews, William T
Donahue, Deborah
Holmes, Adam
Balsara, Rashna
Castellino, Francis J
Hummon, Amanda B

Recommend literature