AppleMDO: A Multi-Dimensional Omics Database for Apple Co-Expression Networks and Chromatin States.
IF: 6.627
Cited by: 16


As an economically important crop, apple is one of the most cultivated fruit trees in temperate regions worldwide. Recently, a large number of high-quality transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets for apple were made available to the public, which could be helpful in inferring gene regulatory relationships and thus predicting gene function at the genome level. Through integration of the available apple genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic datasets, we constructed co-expression networks, identified functional modules, and predicted chromatin states. A total of 112 RNA-seq datasets were integrated to construct a global network and a conditional network (tissue-preferential network). Furthermore, a total of 1,076 functional modules with closely related gene sets were identified to assess the modularity of biological networks and further subjected to functional enrichment analysis. The results showed that the function of many modules was related to development, secondary metabolism, hormone response, and transcriptional regulation. Transcriptional regulation is closely related to epigenetic marks on chromatin. A total of 20 epigenomic datasets, which included ChIP-seq, DNase-seq, and DNA methylation analysis datasets, were integrated and used to classify chromatin states. Based on the ChromHMM algorithm, the genome was divided into 620,122 fragments, which were classified into 24 states according to the combination of epigenetic marks and enriched-feature regions. Finally, through the collaborative analysis of different omics datasets, the online database AppleMDO ( was established for cross-referencing and the exploration of possible novel functions of apple genes. In addition, gene annotation information and functional support toolkits were also provided. Our database might be convenient for researchers to develop insights into the function of genes related to important agronomic traits and might serve as a reference for other fruit trees.


Malus domestica
anthocyanin biosynthesis
chromatin state
co-expression network
fruit ripening
functional module


Da, Lingling
Liu, Yue
Yang, Jiaotong
Tian, Tian
She, Jiajie
Ma, Xuelian
Xu, Wenying
Su, Zhen

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