Effects of nitrate on development and thyroid hormone signaling pathway during Bufo gargarizans embryogenesis.
IF: 8.943
Cited by: 14


Nitrate is known to disrupt the thyroid hormone, which is essential for the metamorphosis of amphibians. However, few studies are focused on the effects of nitrate on the maternal thyroid hormone in early amphibian embryos. We aimed to determine the impact of nitrate on maternal thyroid hormone signaling pathway in Bufo gargarizans embryos. B. gargarizans embryos were exposed to different concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) for 7 days. High concentration of NO3-N (50, 100, and 200 mg/L) could induce embryonic malformation and influence the development of embryos. In addition, maternal T4 and components of the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway were detected by ELISA and RNA-seq, respectively. The expression levels of mRNA related to thyroid hormone and oxidative stress were affected in the early developing embryos in all NO3-N treatment groups. However, the T4 levels and the spatial expression patterns of type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), type III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3), thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα), and thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) mRNA were not changed by nitrate. In conclusion, the results of our study highlight the crucial role of the maternal thyroid hormone signaling pathway in normal embryonic development, and the adverse effects of nitrate on the expression levels of mRNA related to thyroid hormone signaling pathway and oxidative stress in B. gargarizans embryos.


Spatial Gene Expression
Bufo gargarizans
Thyroid hormone

MeSH terms

Embryo, Nonmammalian
Embryonic Development
Iodide Peroxidase
Metamorphosis, Biological
Oxidative Stress
Signal Transduction
Thyroid Hormones
Iodothyronine Deiodinase Type II


Xie, Lei
Zhang, Yuhui
Qu, Yanhua
Chai, Lihong
Li, Xinyi
Wang, Hongyuan

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