Fluorescent detection of transcripts using RNAscope has quickly become a standard in situ hybridization (ISH) approach in neuroscience with over 400 publications since its introduction in 2012. RNAscope's sensitivity and specificity allow the simultaneously detection of up to three low abundance mRNAs in single cells (i.e., multiplexing) and, in contrast to other ISH techniques, RNAscope is performed in 1 day. BaseScope, a newer ultrasensitive platform, uses improved amplification chemistry of single oligonucleotide probe pairs (∼50 bases). This technique allows discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms or splice variants that differ by short exons. A present limitation of BaseScope is that expression analysis is limited to a single gene (i.e., single-plexing). This article outlines detailed protocols for both RNAscope and BaseScope in neuronal tissue. We discuss how to perform ISH experiments using either fresh-frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, as well as dissociated cultured neurons. We also outline how to obtain quantitative data from hybridized tissue sections. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.