3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic Acid as a Novel Matrix for Enhanced In Situ Detection and Imaging of Low-Molecular-Weight Compounds in Biological Tissues by MALDI-MSI.
IF: 8.008
Cited by: 59


Low-molecular-weight (low-MW) compounds have many essential functions in biological processes, and the molecular imaging of as many low-MW compounds as possible is critical for understanding complex biological processes. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is an emerging molecular-imaging technology that enables determination of the spatial distributions and the relative abundances of diverse endogenous compounds in tissues. New matrices suitable for the imaging of low-MW compounds by MALDI-MSI are important for the technological advancement of tissue imaging. In this study, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) was evaluated as a new matrix for enhanced low-MW compound detection by MALDI-MSI because of its strong ultraviolet absorption, low matrix-ion related interferences below m/ z 500, and high ionization efficiency for the analysis of low-MW compounds. DMCA was successfully used for improved in situ detection of low-molecular-weight metabolites ( m/ z < 500) and lipids in rat liver, rat brain, and germinating Chinese-yew seed tissue sections. The use of DMCA led to the successful in situ detection of 303, 200, and 248 low-MW compound ion signals from these three tissues, respectively. Both MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS were used to identify these ion signals, leading to the identification of 115 low-MW compounds from rat liver (including 53 lipids, 29 oligopeptides, and 33 metabolites), 130 low-MW compounds from rat brain (including 104 lipids, 5 oligopeptides, and 21 metabolites), and 111 low-MW compounds from germinating Chinese-yew seeds (including 77 lipids, 22 oligopeptides, 8 flavonoids, and 4 alkaloids). A larger number of low-MW compounds could be detected and imaged when DMCA was used as the MALDI matrix than with other commonly used MALDI matrices such as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, graphene oxide, and silver nanoparticles. Our work provides a new and powerful matrix for enhanced MALDI-MS profiling of low-MW compounds in both animal and plant tissues.



MeSH terms

Brain Chemistry
Limit of Detection
Organic Chemicals
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Ultraviolet Rays


He, Huixin
Qin, Liang
Zhang, Yawen
Han, Manman
Li, Jinming
Liu, Yaqin
Qiu, Kaidi
Dai, Xiaoyan
Li, Yanyan
Zeng, Maomao
Guo, Huihong
Zhou, Yijun
Wang, Xiaodong

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