Heterotrimeric G protein signaling plays major roles during different cellular events. However, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying G protein control during embryogenesis. G proteins are highly conserved and can be grouped into four subfamilies according to sequence homology and function. To further studies on G protein function during embryogenesis, the present analysis identified four Gα subunits representative of the different subfamilies and determined their spatiotemporal expression patterns during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis. Each of the Gα subunit transcripts was maternally and zygotically expressed, and, as development progressed, dynamic expression patterns were observed. In the early developmental stages, the Gα subunits were expressed in the animal hemisphere and dorsal marginal zone. While expression was observed at the somite boundaries, in vascular structures, in the eye, and in the otic vesicle during the later stages, expression was mainly found in neural tissues, such as the neural tube and, especially, in the cephalic vesicles, neural crest region, and neural crest-derived structures. Together, these results support the pleiotropism and complexity of G protein subfamily functions in different cellular events. The present study constitutes the most comprehensive description to date of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Gα subunits during vertebrate development.