30K proteins (30KPs) are classified into the lepidopteran-specific Lipoprotein_11 family. They are involved in various physiological processes such as energy storage, embryonic development, and immune response in the silkworm. To date, 30KPs were only found in Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. Moreover, the C-termini of ENF peptide binding proteins (ENF-BPs) show similarity to 30KPs. ENF peptides are multifunctional insect cytokines and involved in growth regulation and defense reaction, whereas ENF-BPs act as active regulators of ENF peptides. In order to get insights into this gene family in Lepidoptera, we performed an extensive survey of lepidopteran-derived genome and EST datasets. We identified 73 30KP homologous genes in 12 lepidopteran species, of which 56 are novel members. The structural and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these genes could be classified into three groups: ENF-BP genes, typical 30KP genes, and serine/threonine-rich 30KP (S/T-rich 30KP) genes. The C-terminal regions are common to all the three subfamilies, but the N-termini are highly variable. We found a novel subfamily of Lipoprotein_11 and named it S/T-rich 30KP according to its exclusive S/T-rich domain in the N terminus. ENF-BP was also found to contain a special domain in the N terminus, which is homologous to Pp-0912 of Pseudomonas putida. Microarray data and semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the three groups have their respective temporal-spatial expression patterns. S/T-rich 30KP genes have enriched expression in the mature testis and might be involved in spermiogenesis or fertilization. Typical 30KP genes are expressed mainly in the fat body and integument at the larvae and pupae stages. ENF-BP genes are expressed predominantly in the hemocyte. The differential spatial-temporal expression profiles revealed the functional divergence of three Lipoprotein_11 subfamilies.