CNGBdb hosts a vast amount of molecular data and other information that is indexed by CNGBdb Search. These data include literature, project, sample, experiment, run, assembly, variation, gene, protein, sequence et al.

On the homepage of CNGBdb, you can enter any meaningful word or number to find relevant information. For example, literature number (CNL_PMID24971553), gene name (TP53), species, disease, etc. CNGBdb supports word search. For example, if you search for "homo", it will return search results that match "homo" and will not return search results that match "ho" or "hom". More complex query syntax will be added in the CNGBdb iteration version.

Query examples

Following the aforementioned query syntax, users can search according to data content and characteristics.

A few examples of queries that can be performed using CNGBdb Search are listed below.

Search for literature CNL_PMID24971553.

Search for gene TP53.

Search for protein Ovarian cancer-related protein 1.

Search for project CNP0000028.

Search for sample CNS0000027.

Search results

CNGBdb contains information on 10 data structures of project, sample, experiment, run, assembly, literature, variation, protein, sequence, gene. Searching by keyword on the homepage, all results in 10 data structures will be returned by default. On the page of search results, you can see the top 3 search results with the highest relevance of each sub database. If you want to view more results, click on “More results” below each sub database to view. Select one of the sub databases from the drop-down list on the left side of the search bar on the homepage to search, corresponding search results of the sub database will be returned. Scroll down the page, more search results up to 100 will be loaded, Search results after 100 will not be displayed. If the results you want are still not found in the 100 search results, it is recommended to modify the search terms to re-search.

Users can also re-search by inputting the search term through the search bar of the search result page, and the search bar of the search results page has the same function as the home search bar.


The navigation filter on the left allows users for a compact view and easy navigation across different databases. It provides a means for exploring the search results grouped in relevant databases and drilling down the scope of the results.

Detailed data and Related data

If you click on the number of a certain data, you can go to the details page of the data to view more detailed information. For example, click the literature number (CNL_PMID24971553) on the search result page to jump to the literature details page (/search/literature/CNL_PMID24971553/).

If you click on Related data for a particular entry you can explore its cross-references to other databases resources of CNGBdb, such as in the variation database of the search results, click on the gene in a certain data, you can link to the gene information page of the gene database.

Synonym conversion for CNGBdb search

CNGBdb search configures synonymous organisms (the synonym table is mainly from taxonomy database) and medical subject words (the synonym table is mainly comes from mesh). When you search for a keyword, the synonym of the keyword can also be retrieved, for example, Oryza sativa‘s scientific name is Oryza sativa L, Genbank common name is rice, Inherited blast name is monocots. When you search for Oryza sativa, all of its synonyms including Oryza sativa L, rice, monocots can also be retrieved.

Search fields

The 10 data structures of CNGBdb support different search fields. The search fields are as follows.

StructureSearch fields
LiteratureLiterature ID, Title, Author, Journal, Publication type, Identifier(s), Abstract, Keywords
GeneGene ID, Identifier(s), Organism, Symbol, Title, Also knowns as
VariationVariant ID, HGVS/Genome variation, Organism, Gene(s), Condition(s), Condition ID, Phenotype(s), Phenotype ID, Project ID, Literature ID, Identifier(s)
ProteinProtein ID, Protein name(s), Identifier(s), Entry name, Organism, Gene(s), Keywords
SequenceSequence ID, Gene(s), Identifier(s), Keywords, Literature ID, Molecule Type, Organism, Title
ProjectProject ID, Accession in other database, Data type, Title, DOI
SampleSample ID, Accession in other database, Data type, Organism, Related accession, Sample name, Sample model, Organism ID
ExperimentExperiment ID, Accession in other database, Related accession, Platform, Title, Library name
AssemblyAssembly ID, Accession in other database, Related accession, Assembly name, Organism, Organism ID

Reference of data source

1. Millet: Jia G, Huang X, Zhi H, et al. A haplotype map of genomic variations and genome-wide association studies of agronomic traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Nature genetics. 2013;45(8):957-61.

2. 1KP: Matasci N, Hung LH, Yan Z, et al. Data access for the 1,000 Plants (1KP) project. GigaScience. 2014;3:17.

3. 1KITE: Misof B, Liu S, Meusemann K, et al. Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. Science. 2014;346(6210):763-7.

4. HPO: Kohler S, Vasilevsky NA, Engelstad M, et al. The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2017. Nucleic acids research. 2017;45(D1):D865-D76.

5. NCBI: Coordinators NR. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic acids research. 2018;46(D1):D8-D13

6. dbSNP: Smigielski EM, Sirotkin K, Ward M, et al. dbSNP: a database of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nucleic acids research. 2000;28(1):352-5

7. SRA: Kodama Y, Shumway M, Leinonen R, et al. The Sequence Read Archive: explosive growth of sequencing data. Nucleic acids research. 2012;40(Database issue):D54-6.

8. Assembly: Kitts PA, Church DM, Thibaud-Nissen F, et al. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI. Nucleic acids research. 2016;44(D1):D73-80.

9. Refseq: Pruitt KD, Tatusova T, Brown GR, et al. NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq): current status, new features and genome annotation policy. Nucleic acids research. 2012;40(Database issue):D130-5.

10. Gene: Brown GR, Hem V, Katz KS, et al. Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI. Nucleic acids research. 2015;43(Database issue):D36-42.

11. Taxonomy: Federhen S. The NCBI Taxonomy database. Nucleic acids research. 2012;40(Database issue):D136-43.

12. GEO: Barrett T, Wilhite SE, Ledoux P, et al. NCBI GEO: archive for functional genomics data sets--update. Nucleic acids research. 2013;41(Database issue):D991-5.

13. dbvar: Barrett T, Wilhite SE, Ledoux P, et al. NCBI GEO: archive for functional genomics data sets--update. Nucleic acids research. 2013;41(Database issue):D991-5.

14. Clinvar: Landrum MJ, Lee JM, Benson M, et al. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants. Nucleic acids research. 2016;44(D1):D862-8.

15. OMIM: Amberger JS, Bocchini CA, Schiettecatte F, et al. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM(R)), an online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Nucleic acids research. 2015;43(Database issue):D789-98.

16. dbgap: Mailman MD, Feolo M, Jin Y, et al. The NCBI dbGaP database of genotypes and phenotypes. Nature genetics. 2007;39(10):1181-6.

17. EBI: Park YM, Squizzato S, Buso N, et al. The EBI search engine: EBI search as a service-making biological data accessible for all. Nucleic acids research. 2017;45(W1):W545-W9.

18.UniProt : The UniProt Consortium. UniProt: a worldwide hub of protein knowledge. Nucleic Acids Res. 47: D506-515 (2019).

Data archiving

The data archive services of CNGBdb include CNGB Nucleotide Sequence Archive (CNSA) , Pan immune repertoire database (PIRD) and GigaDB, which are committed to the submission, storage and sharing of data for biological sequencing research projects, samples, experiments, assembly, variations, etc. They’re designed to provide researchers around the world with the comprehensive data and information resources today, enabling researchers to use data with maximum authority.

CNSA: CNGB Nucleotide Sequence Archive

PIRD:Pan immune repertoire database


Scientific database

The CNGBdb Scientific databases will build data applications in different fields based on the underlying data structures and data of CNGBdb, aiming to provide scientific data services for different research areas, such as biodiversity, microbe, cancer, immune, reproductive health, pathogen, etc., meet the needs of researchers in different fields, enhance the value of data, and promote data development and application.

PIRD:Pan immune repertoire database

GDRD:Genetic Disease and Rare Disease

DISSECT:Data Integration Solution for Systematic Exploration of Cancer Traits

MDB:Microbiome Database

PVD:Pathogen Variation Database

Data analysis

Based on the underlying data, CNGBdb builds a distributed high-performance computing platform, and deploys application services such as BLAST, Cancer Data Analysis, Pathogen Identification.


DISSECT:Data Integration Solution for Systematic Exploration of Cancer Traits

PVD:Pathogen Variation Database

Data visualization

Visualization is designed to visualize the biological data of CNGBdb using multiple visualization techniques, including the visualization of genomes, transcriptome, proteome and so on.

Data management

CNGB Data Access (CDA) provides users with the services of approval, authorization, and distribution of controlled data. Whether data is authorized for access is determined by the data owner/organization.

Data standard

CNGBdb integrates data structures and standards of international omics, health, and medicine, such as The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health GA4GH (GA4GH), Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN), American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), and constructs standardized data standards and structures with wide compatibility.