Cancer is, in essence,
a genetic disease

Search for your interest

Introduction

Cancer is a major public health problem in China and many other countries of the world. It is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumours and neoplasms. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs. This process is referred to as metastasis. Metastases are the major cause of death from cancer. In addition, a significant proportion of cancers can be cured, by surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, especially if they are detected early.

Reference: WHO website

The Cancer Database is built by China National GeneBank as a large comprehensive genome database. In the past decades, we have witnessed the rapid development of genome sequencing technologies and the resultant wealth of knowledge from cancer genomes. In order to promote the development of china cancer genome research, the database collects and stores Chinese cancer genome data and shares with all cancer research center. Besides, the database will utilize these data researched mechanism of the most frequently occurred cancer among Chinese, largely promoted research of the early diagnosis and cure of cancer in China. To accomplish these goals, we have established this database, anticipated to build the first database with the most abundant data and accomplished function in China.

Tumour Type

There are more than 100 types of tumour. You can search this website for information on specific types of tumour based on the tumour's location in the body.

Genes & Variations

The genetic changes that contribute to cancer tend to affect three main types of genes: proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. You can search this website for information by gene symbol.

Donor

This website contains donors common and clinical information, sample types, sample processing and result, dataset. You can search this website for information on donor ID and sample ID.

Data

The types of data include raw data, clean data, alignment data, function analysis data, phenotype data. Please search this website on data ID or data type for more information.

Research Progress around World

Over the past decade, comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed the genomic landscapes of common forms of human cancer. To date, these studies have revealed ~140 genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote or "drive" tumorigenesis. A typical tumor contains two to eight of these "driver gene" mutations; the remaining mutations are passengers that confer no selective growth advantage. Driver genes can be classified into 12 signaling pathways that regulate three core cellular processes: cell fate, cell survival, and genome maintenance. A better understanding of these pathways is one of the most pressing needs in basic cancer research. Even now, however, our knowledge of cancer genomes is sufficient to guide the development of more effective approaches for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality.

Reference: Cancer genome landscapes

Estimated number of new cancer cases in 21 world areas

Estimates for the 21 world regions and for more and less developed regions are calculated as the population-weighted average of the incidence and mortality rates of the component countries. The data is from (2015), Global cancer statistics, 2012.

Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.

Reference: (2015), Global cancer statistics, 2012

Database Statistics

The Cancer Database includes donor information such as age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, and geographic areas, sequencing data, and processed data such as mutation, variation. Use of these data for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes submission and release dates.

Table statistics

Donors1,201
Sample2,361
Tumour type22
Mutated gene13,108
Variation37,385
Data amount20.1 TB

Top 10 tumour type in the world

In each panel below, the right side is the top 10 tumour type from (2015), Global cancer statistics, 2012, and the left side is the data amount (GB) and donor statistics sorted by age in this database.

Legends: Data Amount(0-19), Data Amount(20-39), Data Amount(40-59), Data Amount(60-79), Data Amount(80+), Donor(0-19), Donor(20-39), Donor(40-59), Donor(60-79), Donor(80+).