Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables simultaneous spatial mapping for diverse molecules in biological tissues. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been a mainstream MSI method for a wide range of biomolecules. However, MALDI-MSI of biological homopolymers used for energy storage and molecular feedstock is limited by, e.g., preferential ionization for certain molecular classes. Matrix-free nanophotonic ionization from silicon nanopost arrays (NAPAs) is an emerging laser desorption ionization (LDI) platform with ultra-trace sensitivity and molecular imaging capabilities. Here, we show complementary analysis and MSI of polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB), polyglutamic acid (PGA), and polysaccharide oligomers in soybean root nodule sections by NAPA-LDI and MALDI. For PHB, number and weight average molar mass, polydispersity, and oligomer size distributions across the tissue section and in regions of interest were characterized by NAPA-LDI-MSI.